Afrika iyo Is-dhexgalka Gobolaysiga – Vol: 01 – Cad: 36aad

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Indheergarad – Oktoobar 14, 2019 – Lammin  – Vol: 01 – Cadadka: 36aad

Hordhac

Qormadan waxa aan si guud iyo si gaar ahba ku falanqeyn doonnaa qaaradda Afrika iyo Is-dhexgalka Gobolaysiga (Regional Integration) ka jira. Gobbolaysigan oo ay aasaaseen waddamo Afrikaan ahi ayaa aynnu kaga bogan doonnaa. Si gaar ah waxa aynnu u dul is taagi doonnaa dhinacayada kala ah: wakhtiyadii la asaasay, waddamada  wada unkay gobolaysiga, gobalaysi kasta inta waddan ee uu ka kooban yahay, qaababka ay xilalka u kala qaybsadan,  xeerarka u yaal, sababta loo sameeyay gobolaysiga, dheefta ku jirta in ay gobolaysi sameeyaan, guumaystuhu gobolaysiga qaaradda Afrika ka jira saamayn ma ku leeyahay? Iyo tan u dambaysa oo ah caqabadaha soo wajaha  gobolaysiga qaaradda Afrika. Isla qormadan waxa aynnu ku eegi doonnaa qeexida aragtida gobolaysiga (Regionalism)  gu’gii ay qaaradda Afrika ka  soo if-baxday.

Aragtida gobolaysiga qeexitaanno badan ayaa ay leedahay, se inta ugu macquulsan ayaan ka soo qaadan doonnaa taas oo aynnu ka raaci doonno nuxurka loo sameeyo is-dhexgalka gobolaysiga (Regional Integration) maadaama aynaan ka gayoon karin dhammaan qeexitaannada. Bal aynnu eegno qeexitaannada is-dhexgalka gobolaysiga: “Gobolaysigu waa aragti siyaasadeed oo u adeegta gobollo gaar ah kuwaas oo ku midoobay heshiisna ku wada gaadhay sidii ay uga wada faa’iidaysan lahaayeen.” In gobolaysi la sameeya dhowr shay ayaa fududeeya sida: in ay diin wadaagan, in ay isku luuqad yihiin iyo juquraafi ahaanba. Gobolaysigu waxa laf-dhabar u ah in dhaqaalaha laga wada faa’iidaysto, iyada oo loo marayo nidaamka loo yaqaan iskaashiga ( Co-operation).[i]

Is-dhexgalka gobolaysigu waa habka ay laba waddan iyo wixii ka badan ugu heshiiyaan in ay iskaashi iyo wada shaqayn dhow yeeshan, una wada gaadhaan nabad (peace),  xasilooni (stability) iyo hanti (wealth). Inta badan is-dhexgalku wuxuu la xidhiidha hal ama dhowr heshiis kuwaas oo la dhaho heshiiska qoran (Written Agreement), heshiiskaas oo si cad u qeexaya meelaha iskaashiga laga samaynayo, siina faahfaahinaya si aan mad’madow uga imaan. Iskaashigan inta badan wuxuu ka bilaabmaa  kow:  is-dhexgalka dhaqaale (Economic Integration), sidoo kale is-dhexgalka siyaasadeed
(Political Integration). Waxa aynnu ku qeexi karnaa is-dhexgalka in uu misaan yahay, maadama ay dhowr waddan ku midoobayaan. [ii]

Is-dhexgalka dhaqaale (Economic Integration) waa habka ay waddamo kala duwan ugu heshiiyaan sidii ay meesha uga saari lahaayeen caqabadaha soo wajaha ganacasiga (Trade Barriers) ka dhexeeya iyaga. Caqabahada ganacsigu waxa ay noqon karaan cashuurta (Tariffs). Sida cashuurta  lagu soo rogo  waxa uu waddanku la soo deggo. Is-dhexgalka siyaasaddeed (Political Integration)  sida ay dhaqaalaha  ay iskaashi uga sameeyeen iyaga oo raacaya hal suuq (The single market), ayaa ay u baahan yihiin in ay qaataan ama ay ka midoobaan siyaasadda, marka ay ka midoobayaan siyaasadda ujeedadu waa in ay hal siyaasad yeeshan waddamadaasi” [iii]

Qaaradda Afrika iyana waxa la sheegaa in uu gobolaysigu ka unkamay ka dib wakhtiyadii uu guumaystuhu xorriyad la moodka siiyay waddamadii uu kolkaas ka talinayay. Hilaadaahaas uu soo if-baxay is-dhexgalka gobolaysigu waxa la sheegaa in ay ahayd Afrika 1963-kii, Ururka Midowga Afrika (Organisation of African Union). Qaybo ka mid ah gobolaysiga ka jira qaaradda Afrika ayaa aynnu isla eegi doonnaa:

Midowga Afrika (African Union)

Midowga Afrika, wuxuu ka kooban yahay 55 waddan oo qaaradda Afrika ku yaal. Bishii meey 1963-kii,  32 madaxa oo ka socda waddamada qaaradda Afrika, oo kolkaa madaxbannaanaa ayaa ku kulmay caasimadda Itoobbiya ee Addis Ababa, si ay u hirgeliyaan una saxeexaan axdiga ay ku unkayeen hay’addii ugu horreysay ee madaxbannaanida qaaradda taas oo lagu magacaabi jiray Ururka Midowga Afrika (Organisation of African Uniony) ee 1963-1999. Midowgan ayaa ahaa midowgii ugu horreeyay ee qaaradda laga sameeyo kaas oo markii dambe ay ka dhalatay Midowga Afrika (AU).  Midowga Afrika, waxa si rasmi ah loo hirgeliyay bishii Luulyo ee sannaddii 2002-dii. Waxa lagu aasaasay magaalada Durban, Koonfurta Afrika (South Africa), gaar ahaan go’aankii bishii sebtembar, 1999-kii ka soo baxay Ururka Midowga Afrika, ayaa lagu go’aansaday in la abuuro urur cusub kaas oo ahaa (AU). Midowga Afrika waxaa hagaysa aragtida loogu talo galey in ay isku soo dhawaansho ku dareeman dhammaan waddamada ku wada jiraa taas oo ah aragtida isku dhafan, barwaaqo iyo nabadda Afrika, taas oo wadaan muwaadiniinteeda una matalaan xoogagga firfircoon ee adduunka.

The AU is guided by its vision of an Integrated, Prosperous and Peaceful Africa, driven by its own citizens and representing a dynamic force in the global arena.” Sharciga ku-meel gaadhka ah ee Midowga Afrika iyo kan baratakool ee wax-ka-beddelka lagu samaynayo ayaa si qoto dheer u qeexaya himilooyinka iyo hiigsiga laga leeyahay midowgan ay ku midoobeen waddamada qaaradda Afrika. Midowga Afrika dastuurkeeda waxa lagu sheegay in ay waddamada Afrika aan waxba laga beddeli karin xuduudihii uu guumaystayaashu dhigeen, taas oo keentay in aysan saxeexin dhowr waddan oo qaaradda ku yaalla; waddamadaas Soomaaliya ayaa ku jirta.  Xafiiska guud ee Midowga Afrika wuxuu ka yaal caasimadda Itoobbiya ee Addis Ababa.

Midowga Afrika (AU) qaabdhismeedkiisu waxa uu ka kooban yahay:

1.      Golaha Sare ee Dawladdaha Xubnaha ka ah Midowga Afrika.

2.      Golaha Fulinta ee Midowga Afrika.

3.      Guddida Wakiillada Joogtada ah ee Midowga Afrika.

4.      Guddiyada Farsamo ee Gaarka ah ee Midowga Afrika.

5.      Golaha Nabadda iyo Amniga ee Midowga Afrika.

6.      Guddiga Midowga Africa.

Qaab dhismeedka Midowga Afrika wuxuu dhiirrigeliyaa ka qeybgalka muwaadiniinta Afrikaanka iyo bulshada rayidka ah iyada oo loo marinayo baarlamaanka Pan-African.

7.      Golaha Dhaqaalaha, Bulshada & Dhaqanka (ECOSOCC).


Hay’adaha maaraynta arrimaha garsoorka iyo arrimaha xuquuqul insaanka waxaa ka mid ah:

8.      Guddiga Afrika ee Xuquuqda Aadanaha iyo Xuquuqda bulshada (ACHPR).

9.      Maxkamadda Afrika ee Xuquuqda Aadanaha iyo Xuquuqda Dadka (AfCHPR).

10.  Guddiga Midowga Afrika ee Sharciga Caalamiga ah (AUCIL).

11.  Golaha La-Talinta ee Musuqmaasuqa (AUABC).

12.  Guddiga Khubarada Afrikaanka ee Xuquuqda iyo Daryeelka Ilmaha.

13.  Midowga Afrika wuxuu sidoo kale ka shaqeeyaa sidii loo abuuri lahaa hay’ad maaliyadeed qaaradeed (Bangiga Dhexe ee Afrika, Bangiga Maalgashiga Afrika iyo Sanduuqa Lacagta ee Afrika).

14.  Bulshooyinka Dhaqaalaha Gobolka (RECs) iyo farsamada Feejignaanta Afrika waxay sidoo kale yihiin laamo muhiim ah oo aasaas u ah dhismaha Ururka Midowga Afrika.

IGAD ( Intergovernmental Authority On Development)

IGAD (Intergovernmental Authority on Development), waxa la aasaasay sannadku kolkuu ahaa 1996-kii. IGAD waxa lagu magaacabi jiray awal IGADD (Intergovernmental Authority on Drought and Development). IGADD  waxa la hir geliyey sannadkii 1986-kii.  Ujeeddada ugu wayn ee IGADD kolkaas loo aasaasay ayaa ahayd in lagula tacaalo abaarta iyo xaalufka waddamada Geeska Afrika ka jiray wakhtigaas. Horraantii 1996-kii ayaa loo beddelay magaceeda IGAD. Hadafka guud ee ay IGAD u jirto ayaa ah in waddamadaasi iska kaashadaan ama u gaadhaan waxa loo yaqaan badqabka cunnada (Food Security), ilaalinta deeggaanka (Environmental Protection), nabadda iyo amniga (Peace and Security), iskaashi dhinaca dhaqaale (Economic Co-operation) iyo is dhexgalka gobolka (Integration in the Region). IGAD waxa xubno ka ah waddamada kala ah; Somalia, Ethiopia, Djibouti, Eritrea, Kenya, Sudan, South Sudan oo iyana ku soo biirtay kolkii ay ka go’day Sudantii weyneyd iyo Uganda.

Qaabdhismeedka shaqo ee IGAD ayaa u qaybsama afar qaybood:

1.      Shirka  Golaha Hoggaamiyayaasha iyo Dawlad Goboleedyada (Assembly of Heads of States and Governments).

2.      Golaha Wasiirrada ( Council of Ministries).

3.      Guddiga Safiirrada (Committee of Ambassadors).

4.      Xoghaynta( Secretary).[iv]

Gobolaysi kasta oo la hirgeliyo waxa jira caqabado soo waajaha, siiba waddamada qaaradda Afrika oo ay kow ka tahay hagardaamooyinkii ay ka dhaxleen guumaystihii. IGAD, caqabadaha soo waajahay waxa kow ka ah muranka xuduudaha (Border Disputes). Dhammaan waddamada ku midoobay IGAD ayaa waajaha khilaafaad ku saabsan muranka xuduudaha tusaale ahaan: Somalia iyo Ethiopia muran dhanka xuduudda ah oo soo jireen ah ayaa ka dhaxeeya. Sannadkii 1977-kii waatii Somalia iyo Ethiopia dagaal dhex maray ku saabsanaa arrinka xuduudda. Dhulkaas oo ay Somalia la haanshiihisa ku doodayso, sidoo kalena ay Ethiopia ku doodayso in dhulkaasi ka mid yahay waddankeeda. Waa dhulka loo yaqaan (Ogaadeeniya ama Kililka shanaad).

Ethiopia iyo Eretria ayaa iyaguna muran dhanka xuduudda ahi ka dhaxeeyay, murankaas oo horseeday dagaalkii u dhaxeeyay labada waddan intii u dhexaysay 1998 ilaa 2000.  Is-beddelkii ka dhacay dalka Ethiopia ayaa ugu dambayn lagu soo af-jaray murankii labada dal u dhaxeeyay ee dhanka xuduudda.[v]

Djibouti iyo Eretria ayaa iyaguna ka mid ah dalalka ay ka dhaxeeyaan muranka xuduuduhu, murankoodana waxa  gundhig u ah guumaystihii. Sannadkii 2008 illaa wakhtigan murankii waa taagan yahay iyada oo loo xukumay dhulkii  Djibouti.[vi]

Kenya iyo Somalia ayuu isla murankaas xaduuduhu ka dhaxeeyaan oo isla wakhtigan la taagan yahay arrinka baddu yahay mid taagan. Arrimahan isku qabqabsiga xuduudaha ayaa ah caqabada ugu weyn ee hortaagan in uu guuleysto gobolaysigani. Dhibaatooyinka kale ee aan xusi karo ayaa ah: deganaansho la’aan siyaasadeed ayaa jirta dalalkan ku bahoobay IGAD dhexdeeda. Muranka doorashooyinka ka dhaca dalalkaas oo inta badan la isku qabsado ama kala qaybsanaan gudeed sababa. Musuqmaasuqa ayaa isaguna ah mid mudan in la sheego, iyadana waxa xusid mudan saboolnimada ay inta badan waajahaan bulsho weynta ku dhaqan waddamadaasi.  Guud ahaan arrimahaas aan soo taxnay waxa ay qayb ka yihiin waxyaabaha sababaya in aanay IGAD gaadhin  ujeedadii loo unkay.

Ururka Midowga Arab Maghreb (AMU)

Arab-Maghreb Union (AMU), waxa la aasaasay gu’gii 1989-kii. Ujeedada guud ayaa markaas ahayd in ay samaystaan waxa loo yaqan midowga kastamyada (Customs Union) iyo suuqa guud (Comman Market).  1995 ilaa 2000. Is gobbolaysigan waxa ku bohoobay: Algeria, Libiya, Mauritania, Marooco iyo Tunisia. Arab Maghreb Union, waa heshiis ganacsi oo looga gol-leeyahay in ay ku gaadhan ganacsi iyo siyaasad midaysan mustaqbalka waddamada ka mid ka ahi. 

Qaabdhismeedka guud ee ururka:

1.      Golaha Madaxtooyada (The  Presidency Council).

2.      Golaha Wadatashiga (The Consultative Council).

3.      Xoghaynta (The Secretariat).

4.      Gudiga Kormeer (The Monitoring Committee).

5.      Kulanka Raysal Wasaarayaasha (The Meeting of the Prime Ministers).

6.      Golaha Wasiirrada Arrimaha Dibadda (The Council of Foreign Ministers).

7.      Guddiyada Gaarka ah ee Wasiirrada( The Ministerial Specialized Commissions). 

8.      Hay’adda Garsoorka (The Judicial Organ).

9.      Jaamacadda Maghreb

10.  Bangiga Maghreb ee Maalgashiga iyo Ganacsiga Dibadda (The Maghreb Bank for Investment and Foreign Trade).

Qayb kasta shaqo gooniya ayaa ay qabataa, waana nidaamka ay shaqooyinka u kala qaybsadaan. Guddoomiyanimada ururku waa mid wareeegto ah oo kolba dal ayaa xilkiisa qabta. Laga soo bilaabo ilaa gu’gii la aasaasay midowgan shanta dal ee ku jiraa waxa ay saxeexeen in ka badan soddon heshiis oo dhinacyo badan (Multilateral Agreements). Heshiisyadaas dhammaantood waxa ay xoogga  saarayeen arrimaha kala ah: dhaqaalaha, bulshada iyo dhaqanka. Soddoonkaas heshiis shan ka mid ah uun bay shanta dal ansaxiyeen.  Dalalkan ku bohoobay gobolaysigan ayaa inta badan waajaha caqabado ay ka mid yihiin: dalalka ka mid ka ah gobolaysigan ayaan bixin lacagta ururka loogu talo galey, taas oo ah caqabadda ugu weyn ee uu ururku waajaho. Laba,  xidhiidho ganacsi oo gobolka ka baxsan ayaa ay sameeyaan intooda badani oo Midowga Yurub ayaa ay la leeyihiin ganacsi kuna tiirsan yihiin. Saddex,  kala duwanaansho dhanka wax soo saarka ayaan jirin.  Saddexdaas qodob ee aan soo sheegnay ayaa ah dhibaatooyinka ay waajahayaan dalalka ku jira urukan.[vii]

Southern Africa Development Community (SADC)

Southern Africa Development Community (SADC),  is gobolaysigan ay aasaaseen ku dhawaad shan iyo toban dal. Waddamadaas waxa ka mid ah;  AngolaBotswanaComorosDemocratic Republic of Congo,  EswatiniLesothoMadagascarMalawi,  MauritiusMozambiqueNamibiaSeychellesSouth AfricaUnited Republic of TanzaniaZambia iyo Zimbabwe. Ururkan waxa la aasaasay sannadku kolkuu ahaa  1980-kii. Wakhtigaas waddamada intooda badan waxa ka talinayay Dhaqdhaqaaqa Xoraynta Qaranka (National Liberation Movements). Ujeeddadooduna sida guud waxa ay ahayd in ay isku dabaridka halgankooda siyaasadeed iyo kan diblomaasiyadeedba mideeyan si ay u gaadhan halka ay ugu jiraan dhibaatooyinku gumaystuhu keenay. Kaas oo wakhtigaas sababay in ay in yar oo caddaan ahi guud ahaan u taliyaan dadka madow.  Marka intaas laga yimaaddo dalalka kale ayaa la odhan karaa in uu ahaa; is-dhexgalka suuqa (Market Integration), macro-economic convergence. In la xoojiyo kharashaadka, in kor loo qaado maalgashiga iyo tartanka dalalka ku midaysan SADC.

Qaabdhsimeedka SADC wuxuu ka kooban yahay lix qodob:

1.      Shirka, ka kooban madaxda dowladda gobboleeyada ama madaxda dawladda (The summit, comprising heads of states or heads of governments).

2.      Waaxada Siyaasadda, Difaaca iyo Amniga (Organ on Politics and security).

3.      Golaha Wasiirrada (Council of ministers).

4.      Maxkamadda SADC (SADC Tribunal)

5.      Guddiga Qaranka SADC ( SADC National committee).

6.      Xoghaynta (secretariat).

Dalalkan SADC ku midoobay ayaa ay haystaan dhibaatooyin ay ka mid yihiin; arrimaha bulshada, horumarinta, dhaqaalaha, ganacsiga, waxbarashada, caafimaadka, diblomaasiyada, difaaca, amniga iyo siyaasadda. Dhibaatooyinkan ayaan looga hortagi karin qaab kelinimo ah. Inta badan waxa jira arrimo ka dhaca dalalkaas gudahooda, kuwaas oo ay ka mid yihiin kuwan soo socda: danbiyada qorshaysan kuwaas oo aan xuduudba lahayn. Laba, kastamyada oo iyaguna taag daran iyo waddooyinka oo aan tayo lahayn ama burbirsan. Saddex, cudurrada lo’da ku dhaca ayaa iyaguna ka jira. Dhibaatooyinkan haddii ay dal ka mid ah ka dhacaan saamayn ayaa ay guud ahaan ku yeelanayaan SADC.[viii]

Economic Community of West Africa States (ECOWAS)

Economic Community of West Africa States (ECOWS) waxa unkay gobolaysigan dalalka loo yaqaan  galbeedka Afrika. Dalalka ku midoobay waa illaa shan iyo toban dal kuwaas oo kala ah; Togo,  sierra Leone,  Senegal, Nigeria, Niger, Mali, Liberia, Guinea-Bissau, Guinea, Ghana, Gambia, Ivory Coast., Cape Verde,  Burkina Faso iyo Benin. Waxa la aasaasay sannadu kolkay ahayd 1975-kii bishii meey.   Ujeedka loo sameeyay ayaa ahaa in kor loo qaado is-dhexgalka dhaqaale ee ka gudba gobolka dhexdiisa. Shan iyo tobankan dal, siddeed ka mid ahi waxa ay ku hadlaan luuqadda Faransiiska halka shanta soo hadhayna ku hadasho Ingiriisida, hal dal ayaa carabi kaga hadla. ECOWAS, dalalka ku midoobay waxa ay saxeexeen laba heshiis oo kala ah, in aan la isku gardarroon iyo in  in difaac la wadaago. ECOWAS, laba xarumood oo siyaasadda u fuliya ayuu leeyahay; komiishanka ECOWAS iyo Bangiga Maalgashiga iyo Horumarinta EWOWAS. Dalalka ku bohoobay ECOWAS ayaa leh sub-regional waxa loo yaqaan tusaale; siddeedda dal ee ku hadla luuqadda Faransiiska ayaa ku bohoobay, The West African Economic and Monetary Union. Dalalkan ayaa aasaasay gu’gii 1994-kii, halka kuwii Ingiriisida ku hadlayayna unkeen, The West African Monetary Zone(WAMZ). Sannadkii 2000 ayaa ay hirgeliyeen. ECOWAS, caqabadda ugu weynee haysata ayaa ah is-aaminaad in aanay jirin dalalka ku bohoobay taasna ay sabab u tahay dalalkii kala guumaystay dalalkan oo Faransiiska iyo kala ahaa Ingiriiska. Haddii gobolaysiga aaminaad jirin ay adkaanaysaa in ay gaadhan hadafyadii u dhignaa in ay hirgeliyaan.[ix]

Economic Community of Central African States (ECCAS)

Economic Community of Central African States (ECCAS), waxa lagu aasaasay heshiiskii Brazzaville sannadkii 1964-kii.  Ujeeddada loo sameeyay ayaa ahayd in la sameeyo midow dhanka kastamyada ah iyo ganacsiga xorta ah ee dalalka ka mid ka ah. Waxaana intaas sii dheeraa in laga midoobo cashuuraha waxyaabaha dibadda lagala soo dego. Heshiiskan wuxuu si toos ah uu u shaqeeyay sannadkii 1966-kii ka dib kolkii ay ansixiyeen shanta dal ee ku jira gobolaysigan. Shantan dal ayaa kala ah: Cameroon, The Central Africa Republic, Chad, The Republic of Congo, Gabon . ECCAS waxa ay si toos ah u shaqeysay sannadku kolku ahaa 1981-kii. Toddobo sanno ayaanay waxba qaban sabab la xidhiidha kharash la’aan iyo lacagtii laga doonayey dalal ka tirsan oo aan bixin wax kharash ahba, dagaallada Congo ka socda ayaa iyana qayb ka ah. Afar ujeeddo ayaa ay xoogga saarayeen ECCAS: in horumar laga sameeyo awoodda lagu sii wadi karo nabadda, amniga iyo deganaanshaha waayo intani waxa ay muhiim u yihiin dhalaha iyo horumarinta bulshada. Laba, in horumar muuqda laga sameeyo dhaqaalaha iyo is-kaashiga lacagta. Saddex, in la horumariyo dhaqanka iyo is-dhexgalka dadka. Afar, iyo in la sameeyo nidaamka maalgelinta madaxabannaan.

Qaabdhismeedka ECCAS:

1.      Shirka Madaxda Dalalka iyo Dawladda (Conference of Heads of States and Government).

2.      Golaha Wasiirrada (Council of Ministers).

3.      Xoghaynta Guud (Genera Secretaryl) , xoghaynta guud ayaa afartii sannaba mar la doortaa iyo saddex caawiyayaal ah.

4.      Maxkmada Caddaaladda (Court of Justice).

5.      Guddiga Wadatashiga (Consultative Commission).

Dhanka nabadda iyo amniga haddii aan eegno gobolaysigan dalalka ku midoobay waxa ay saxeexeen, heshiiska in aan la isku gardarroon (Non-Aggression).[x] 

Gebagabadii is-dhexgalka gobolaysiga ka jira Afrika qaybo ka mid ah ayaa aan xusnay, waa intii ugu macquulsanayd ee aan islaha waa laga faa’iidaysan karaa. Sida aan kor ku soo xusnay dhibta ugu weyn ee haysata is-gobolaysigan ayaa ah arrimo ay ka dhaxleen guumaystihii. Taasna waxa ay keentay in aanay waddamadani badankoodu is aaminin siyaasad dibadeed iyo mid gudeedba. Waddamada qaaradda Afrika markooda horeba, waxa lagu tiriyaa waddamada soo koraya dhaqaalo ahaan taasna waxa ay keentay in aanay dhaqaalo ahaan isku filnaan dhexdooda.  Arrinkan gobolaysiga kolka la hirgelinayana waxa aasaas u ah in ay jirto kalsooni dhextaal si guul wada jir ah loo gaadho.


Tixraaca qoraalka

[i] What is the regionalism?- WorldAtlas.com

[ii] Extension: What is Regional Integration? EU Learning. 

[iii] Extension: What is Regional Integration? EU Learning.

[iv] [iv] United nations economic  commission for Africa

[v] Remembering Eritrea-Ethiopia  border war: Africa’s unfinished conflict, 6, May BBC.
[vi] MESSENGER AFRICA.  Fact box: Understanding the Eritrea-Djibouti border dispute

[vii] Arab Maghreb Union, United Notions Economic commissions for Africa.

[viii] Southern Africa Development Community, African Union.

[ix] www.ecowas.int

[x] Economic Community of Central African States (ECCAS), African Union .

WQ: Hinda Cabdiraxmaan Sheekh “Xikma”
Email: hinda20999@gmail.com

About Maamulka Indheergarad 46 Articles
Indheegarad waa mareeg madaxbannaan oo si joogta ah u daabacda qoraallo ku xardhan afka Soomaaliga, kuwaas oo isugu jira: sooyaal, siyaasad, dhaqaale. dhaqan iyo af, turjumaad, arrimaha bulshada iyo aqoonta aadamaha. Waxa ay u soo gudbisaa bulshada Soomaalida qoraallo iyo gorfaymaha buugaagta wax ku oolka ah. Iyada oo yoolka ugu weyn yahay helidda aqoon iyo garaad xor ah oo isku filan, kuna jaango’an waayaha nololeed ee bulshda Soomaalida. Waxaana gundhig iyo sal ay ka duusho waxna ku halbeegto u ah aqoonta, fekerka hufan iyo garaadka aan dabarka lahayn. “

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